Homocysteine & Vascular Disease

Pathophysiology of Homocysteine:

1. Interference with normal thrombolysisHomocysteine-Damage-Ladd-McNamara

  • decreased antithrombin III activity
  • Activation of factor V or XII
  • Inactivation of protein C
  • Promote binding of Lp(a) to fibrin
  • Platelet inhibition (interaction with nitric oxide)

2. Promote SMC proliferation

3. Promote LDL oxidation

4. Direct toxicity to endothelium

Genetic and Dietary Determinants of Serum Homocysteine Concentrations:

Genetic -

  • Cystathionine-beta-synthase deficiency
  • Methionine synthase deficiency
  • MTHFR deficiency
  • Defective absorption of B12 or folate
  • Prevalence – 30% Female V. 25% Male

lowering-homocysteine-levels-naturally-baucom-instituteNutritional -

  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate

Risks Associated with MTHFR Variants/High Homocysteine:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cerebral Vascular Disease (stroke)
  • Venous and Arterial Thrombosis
  • Methotrexate Toxicity for Cancer Therapy